GLOSSARY OF TERMS
There are various terms for the standard case, 0201, RSC, OPT etc.,
see the Notes on Case Code Terminology
for further details. This design is the most popular because it is the
most board efficient and cost effective. Again, see Most
Economic Size Ratios for various Designs for further details.
The required Internal sizes of a pack should normally be what is specified
to a supplier. The supplier will add allowances relating to the board's
caliper to give a bend-to-bend, manufacturing size. The internal dimensions
of a case should always be shown in the following way:
Length x Width x Depth.
Length is the longest side in the opening, usually in the flat
Width is the shortest side in the opening, usually in the flat
plain. (sometimes also termed Breadth)
Depth is the measurement from the top of the opening to the base,
usually in the vertical plain. (sometimes also termed Height)
1ST WAY SIZE: The size of a piece
of board that relates to its flute direction.
2ND WAY SIZE: The size of
a piece of board that relates to its cross flute direction.
C.A.D.: Computer Aided Design
Canners flaps: 0204 with
gapping inner flaps missing 50% of can diameter. This is permissable in
some exort regulations.
CHOP: This is the second
way size of a board, that the manufacturer's Corrugator produces. It is
also sometimes used as another term for 2ND WAY SIZE.
CORRUGATOR ADHESIVE Corrugator adhesive
is made from a corn based starch formula.
CRASH LOCK- 0711 type glued
DEAD LAY: This term relates
to die-cut packs. Dead-lay means that the pack's Gross size does not have
machine trim. Usually this will be in the 1st way, since it is the 1st
way that will have the most accuracy. The advantages of running dead lay,
on a specification, are that it reduces the board area used, so reducing
cost. It also reduces the amount of waste going through the factory, so
lowering our waste levels. The disadvantages of running dead-lay are that
the edges of the blank are less accurately cut and so make-up problems
can result. Also either the "bird beak" on the a rotary die-cutter
or the gripper bars on a flat-bed die-cutter can cause damage to the lead
edge of the pack.
DECKLE: This is the first
way size measurement, across the manufacturer's Corrugator. It is also
sometimes used as another term for 1ST WAY SIZE.
Die-Cut: A production process
whereby packs are produced with the aid of a cutting-die, using a stamping
process. This can be either flat-bed or rotary. This is usually used to
produce either the more complex shaped designs, such as a FEFCO 0427,
or to provide greater accuracy. There is normally tooling costs and greater
running costs involved with die-cut designs.
ECT: Edge Crush Test. One of the standard
test methods for finding the column crush strength of a grade of board.
Please see ECT Testing for further details.
FLANGE: The flange is the area of
board attached to panel 1, which is joined to panel 4 in manufacture.
It is also known as the manufacturers joint. The standard case flange
size should be a minimum of 30 mm.
cutting-die: The word cutting-die
usually relates to the cutting tool used on a die-cutter. However, the
cutting-die usually consists of more than one part. They are usually made
from plywood and have steel cutting and creasing rule, fixed into a cut
into the wood.
GLUE LAP EXTENSIONS: The
purpose of glue lap extensions is to strengthen the joint of a glued case.
They are typically used for all glued cases, particularly those with a
depth less than 300mm. Glue lap extensions should not normally be used
in any case, in the following instances:
- It has an outside glue
- It has fully overlapping
flaps (0203 style).
- An 0214 style top flap
is used, in which case use extensions on the bottom only.
- Most die-cut cases do
not have extensions.
GROSS SIZE: This is the
size produced by the manufacturer on their Corrugator and includes all
of their machine trims.
KRAFT (usually shortened to "K")
Kraft liner represents the top grade material in terms of appearance and
physical properties used in the corrugated industry. These liners are
in general made almost entirely from softwood pulp. Kraft liner is available
in various forms i.e. unbleached kraft, bleached kraft, mottled kraft
and white top kraft. Fully bleached kraft is rarely used these days. In
the recent past the specification for kraft have also been loosened, so
that a small percentage of recycled material can also now be included.
This usually takes the form of re-pulped kraft liner or corrugated box
waste. This waste is applied to the base ply of the liner. There are two
advantages to this, namely it conserves fibre and closes up the sheet,
decreasing it's perosity, which is an aid when used on any machines which
pick up the board via vacuum suction cups.
Mottled Kraft and white lined kraft usually contain less waste, which
is added for the same reasons as it is in the brown kraft liners. It is
not possible to add larger percentages of waste, as this could affect
the whiteness of the sheet. Bleaching of the top ply for these materials
is often of the oxygen type, mainly for environmental reasons. Normal
pH levels - 5.5 to 7. Generally the pH level of board itself is neutral,
since we use a slightly alkerline starch.
NETT SIZE: This is the overall size
of the opened, flat, finished pack. The first of the two sizes always
denotes the flute direction and the second size denotes the cross flute
direction. Hence, "first" and "second" way sizes,
above. e.g. NETT SIZE - 400 x 1000 indicates that the flutes will run
in the 400 mm direction.
NUMBER UP: The number of
individual jobs contained within the board size. Typically this will be
shown as one figure against the production machine e.g. Bobst - 6 Up,
or as two individual figures related to the board size e.g.
NETT SIZE: 300 X 300
GROSS SIZE: (2 Up) 625 X (3 Up) 917 n.b. Obviously this includes
PANELS: A standard case
has four panels, which are numbered away from the flange. Panel 1 being
the one nearest the flange.
Push Lock or Press Lock
- 0216 type base.
Reverse Flute Feed: The
flute direction of the board fed into the machine is perpendicular to
the machine's direction of operation..
SEMI CHEMICAL FLUING MEDIUMS (usually
shortened to "SC") Semi chemical fluting is manufactured
from hardwood pulp, with the inclusion of up to 35% of waste or other
fibre. The waste material is added to allow a greater choice of types
of wood sources to be used, plus conserve wood fibre.
STEREO: These are the printing
"plates" used on many machines for the flexographic printing
process, which is a relief type printing process; that is it uses a raised
printing area. The stereo is flexible and is mounted around a "drum"
on the machine.
Swift slots: Swift slots
are angled on one side and have a corner cut out on the other, rather
than being straight. This means that the inner flaps still hold the pack
square, during filling, but the waste material is easily stripped on the
TEST (usually shortened to "T")
The most common type of Test liner is a homogeneous material manufactured
from 100% chosen grades of waste, e.g. from box plant off cuts and supermarket
empty boxes. Obviously, the higher the proportions of kraft in the waste,
the higher grade of test liner that is produced.
Although the surface finish of this type of Test liner can be good it
is not quite up to the high standard of Kraft liner. Test liner is sized
(with cooked corn starch) to a level similar to Kraft, but it is more
prone to cracking. The compression component of Test liner approaches
that for kraft, but the Burst level is considerably lower. Test liner
is widely used as an alternative to Kraft for the inner lining of corrugated
board but it can also be used as an outer liner when appropriate. Care
should be used in using Test on both facings of a case, if the pack is
likely to be subjected to a high or continually changing moisture environment.
Generally the pH level of board itself is neutral, since we use a slightly
A special Test liner with an identical surface finish to Kraft is also
made, this incorporates a Kraft outer layer and is used when a similar
appearance to Kraft liner is desired. This is known as duplex Test. The
outer surface of the Test liner can also be produced in a range of colours
(White, Mottled etc. Bleaching of the top ply for these materials is often
of the oxygen type, mainly for environmental reasons). Normal pH levels
- 5.5 to 6.
WASTE BASED FLUTING MEDIUMS (usually shortened
to "WB") 100% waste based materials, chemically reinforced
with corn starch. Normal pH levels - 6.5.
Additional information can be found on the
TalkPkg website, amoungest others