T.Q. Management



What is leadership? It is being a Churchill, Henry Ford, Saddam Hussein, President of General Motors, Hitler or a Kennedy. Equally can a Manager have it according to his situation. Leadership is that part of management concerned with getting results through people. There are other aspects of management such as technical and administrative abilities, which are important but successful managers are those who are aware that leadership is the key to effective performance.


The need for effective leaders in management is probably greater than the number of available 'born' leaders. In the past, worker expectations were low and management might afford to hire and fire. Now the 'Enterprise culture' the breakdown of class barriers the diminished importance of the trade unions and increasing wealth have necessitated a different approach to getting results through people. There are three ways of considering leadership:


a) Qualities Approach (Leaders are Born)

Too much attention to personality traits led to the idea that leadership is developed on the playing fields of Eton or by officer cadets at Sandhurst reading about the lives of great men. Qualities will always be important eg judgment and acceptability, but not a total answer because:

I) Many people have qualities such as ambition, drive and enthusiasm but are not effective leaders.

II) No one can agree on 'the' list of qualities or how long should it be.

III) It is difficult to define concepts such as 'Integrity'. Analysis tends to be very subjective 'I just know he is good, don't ask me why'.

IV) On the whole, basic personality traits cannot be changed. Can you develop a sense of humor (by regularly reading 'The Funnies') or emotional stability?

Although this approach is a problem for training, it is important that the leader has the qualities which reflect the needs and expectations of his group.


Judgment; Initiative; Integrity; Foresight; Energy; Drive; Human Relations Skills; Dependability; Ambition; Emotional Stability; Dedication; Objectivity....

b) Situational Approach

'Authority flows from one who knows' is the basis of the situational approach. But is technical ability enough to ensure success with people? Too often someone who is outstanding technically is promoted to a manager with the loss of a trained technologist but no gain in management expertise.

In Practice:

I) Leadership is a function of the situation, for which technical ability is important but not the sole answer.

II) Leadership is defined by Organizational structures and cannot be passed easily round the group.

This approach does represent a breakthrough, as it suggests that leadership comes from knowledge and skills and these can be developed by training.

C) Functional Approach

Between 1960 and 1967, Dr John Adair developed and started to apply to training the functional view of leadership. He allocated the responsibilities of a leader into three inter related areas. These are to define and achieve the task, to build up and co ordinate a team, and to develop and satisfy the individual members.

i) Task Needs. The difference between a group and a random crowd is that a group has some common objective. If a work group does not achieve the required result, or a meaningful result it will become frustrated. Organizations have a task; to make a profit, to provide service, or just to survive. For anyone who manages others, achieving results is a major criterion of success.

ii) Team Needs. To achieve objectives the group must be held together. People need to work in a coordinated fashion in the same direction, teamwork will ensure that their output is greater than the sum of the individual efforts. Conflict within the group must be used effectively, arguments can lead to tension and lack of co operation.

iii) Individual Needs. Within working groups, individuals have sets of needs. They want to know what are their responsibilities, what they can contribute, how well they are performing. The leader must give them the opportunity to take on responsibility, to show their potential and to give them recognition for good work.

1. Set the task of the team; put it across with enthusiasm and remind people of it often.

2. Make leaders accountable for four to fifteen people; practice and instruct them in the three circles.

3. Plan the work, check its progress, design jobs or arrange work to encourage the commitment of individuals and the team.

4. Set individual targets after consulting; discuss progress with each person regularly but at least once a year.

5. Delegate decisions to individuals. If not consult those affected before you decide.

6. Communicate importance of everyone's job; explain decisions to help people apply them; brief team together monthly on Progress, Policy, People and points for action.

7. Train and develop people especially those under 25; gain support for the rules and procedures, set an example and 'have a go' at those who break them.

8. Where unions are recognized, encourage joining, attendance at meetings, standing for office and speaking up for what each person believes is in the interest of the organization and all who work in it.

9. Care for the well being of those in the team; improve working conditions and safety; deal with grievances promptly; attend social functions.

10. Monitor actions; learn from successes and mistakes; regularly walk round each person's place of work, observe, listen and praise.


Key Actions Task Team Individual
Define Objectives Identify tasks and constraints Hold team meetings
Involve team
Share commitment
Clarify objectives
Gain acceptance
(if you fail to plan, you plan to fail)
Establish priorities
Check resources
Set standards
Encourage ideas and actions
Develop Suggestions
Assess Skills
Set targets
Delegate tasks and responsibilities
Brief Brief the team
Check understanding
Explain decisions
Answer questions
Get feedback
Support and monitor as the task progresses Report progress
Maintain standards
Reconcile conflicts
Assist /reassure
Recognize effort
Evaluate Summarize progress
Review objective
Re-plan if necessary
Recognize success
Learn from failure
Assess performance
Appraise and praise
Guide and train